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TIC Dialogue: Thom Gelardi and Simon Senzon

In this TIC Dialogue, Thom Gelardi and Simon Senzon discuss several chiropractic topics over the course of three hours.  The topics ranged from Thom’s only meeting with B.J. Palmer in the 1950s, his private practice, his mentor, Lyle Sherman, as well as other events of history and politics. The most distinct element of the dialogue is Thom’s unwavering philosophical viewpoint that professions are defined by their mission.

This short clip from the discussion is about the different paradigm, or what Gelardi refers to as missions. The chiropractic mission is distinct. The medical mission too is distinct. Over the course of chiropractic history, there was once a clash between “straights” and “mixers.” Starting in the 1970s, that paradigm clash focused on the role of diagnosis and analysis in chiropractic practice.

To listen to the full dialogue, please become a member of The Institute Chiropractic.


TICVLOG Episode 9 Stress and Subluxation

Chiropractic subluxation theory has integrated subluxation theory since the 1950s. In TICVLOG Episode 9: Stress and Subluxation, I go into a short history of stress and subluxation. Many of the leading subluxation theories from the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, included subluxation theory. Some subluxation theorists even included linkages between Speranksy and other Russian neurophysiologists with Selye.


  • D.D. Palmer’s first theories on Innate included how the bones respond to the stressors from the environment.
  • R.O. Muller was the first chiropractor to introduce Selye’s stress syndrome into subluxation theory in 1955.
  • Verner integrated Selye, Speransky, and the reflex subluxation models in the 1950s.
  • Homewood proposed that chiropractors focused on the anatomy of stress (while Selye focused on the physiology of stress).
  • Ward’s Stressology was the most comprehensive integration of stress theory with subluxation theory.
  • Other subluxation models such as Toftness and Epstein integrated stress in important ways.

Resources for this Episode:



* Music written, arranged, and performed by Dan Mills, Mark Goodell, Adam Podd


TICVLOG Episode 8: DD Palmer BJ Palmer and the Chiropractic Profession

The relationship between D.D. Palmer, B.J. Palmer, and the chiropractic profession is fascinating. In TICVLOG Episode 8: Father and Son, I go into detail about their interactions and the impact it had. One of the most fascinating things I discovered was that the back and forth between D.D. Palmer and B.J. Palmer during the years 1908 to 1910, led to new breakthroughs in chiropractic philosophy, theory, and practice.


  • In private letters between D.D. Palmer and B.J. Palmer we learn how and why their relationship fell apart.
  • The year of 1906-1906 was a very difficult one for D.D. Palmer. It had its tragedies, blessings, and new horizons.
  • When D.D. Palmer got to Oregon in 1908, he started reading B.J. Palmer’s new books Vol 2 and Vol 3.
  • D.D.’s criticisms of B.J.’s new chiropractic ideas led to a refinement of theories for both of them.
  • The theories that emerged from that period became the foundation of the chiropractic profession.
  • D.D. Palmer’s final lectures were gathered by his wife after his death and published as a book in 1914.

Resources for this Episode:



* Music written, arranged, and performed by Dan Mills, Mark Goodell, Adam Podd


The Legacy of Reggie Gold with Irene Gold and Simon Senzon

In this TIC Dialogue, Simon Senzon and Irene Gold explore the life and impact of Reggie. It is difficult to estimate the Impact that Reggie and Irene had on the chiropractic profession and world. It is profound.

This preview of the full TIC Dialogue is posted below. To listen to the rest of the hour-long interview please join as a member and go here: http://members.institutechiro.com/archives/portfolio/irene-gold-and-simon-senzon


  • Reggie Gold lectures all over the world for decades.
  • Reggie’s unique contribution to the philosophy of chiropractic included several refinements.
  • Reggie and Irene were instrumental in the early days of Sherman College and the founding of Penn Straight.
  • Reggie started Spinology but discontinued it in the states.
  • Understanding the life of Reggie Gold is an important way to understand modern chiropractic.
  • The first talk on The Valley of the Blind was given at Palmer’s Lyceum in the new auditorium.

Resources for this Episode:



TICVLOG Episode 7 Frequency and History

In TIC VLOG Episode 7, I answer a question about the history of adjustment frequency.

Understanding the original protocols of the chiropractic pioneers gives modern chiropractic practice a new perspective.

This is especially relevant because of the literature. Several recent articles have used a 1902 ad from B.J. Palmer, to try and discredit modern practices. In this TIC VLOG, I explain why that approach is deeply flawed.

Chiropractors need to understand the evolution of theories from D.D. Palmer’s earliest approaches to B.J. Palmer’s final theories and practices. We also need to integrate key moments in the history of chiropractic practice such as Drain’s and Craven’s contributions to chronic and acute care. Frequency models continually evolved between the 1930s and the 1990s.

These foundational historical facts and ideas give us a common basis through which we might dialogue.


  • D.D. Palmer proposed yearly chiropractic analysis in 1897.
  • B.J. Palmer’s models of care frequency evolved from 1902 into the 1950s. Any use of his ideas should include those facts.
  • Several articles in the literature use a B.J. Palmer ad from 1902, out of context from the rest of his life, to make a point about modern practice.
  • J.R. Drain pioneered acute and chronic adjusting protocols.
  • The 3-2-1 frequency model probably emerged from the Parker Seminars in the 1980s.
  • Epstein’s frequency model from the late 1990s was based on the findings from two qualitative studies (retrospective and longitudinal).

Resources for this Episode:



* Music written, arranged, and performed by Dan Mills, Mark Goodell, Adam Podd


TICVLOG Episode 6

TIC VLOG Episode 6 explores the question of D.D. Palmer’s two books. Both books were authored by D.D. Palmer. The first one was published by him in 1910. The second one was published by his widow in 1914. D.D. Palmer died October 20, 1913.

In 1921, B.J. Palmer republished the books as one volume. He included this in the Greenbooks series as the second Volume 4. The first Vol. 4 was published in 1908. B.J. edited the book. He took out some of the unflattering critiques about himself. He also removed other content. In the video, I mention one of the edits I found about Jim Atkinson. I am sure there are other edits to be discovered.


There are so many interesting things we could expand upon from this topic.

  • D.D. Palmer published articles criticizing B.J. Palmer’s Vols. 2 and 3. The articles started in December 1908 and continued through early 1910. These were first published in his journal The Chiropractor Adjuster. The articles were lightly edited and included in his 1910 book, Text-book of the Science, Art, and Philosophy of Chiropractic for Students and Practitioners. On the spine, it reads, “The Chiropractor’s Adjuster.”
  • Even though D.D. Palmer’s two books were published in 1921, few chiropractors knew about them. For example, Clarence Wieant, DC, PhD, published a classic article in 1979 on “philosophy” in chiropractic as a misnomer. In the article, he claimed that he did not know about D.D.’s 1914 book until the 1960s (even though he graduated in 1924!). Perhaps he just wasn’t paying attention to the new Greenbooks being published while he was in school.
  • When thinking of B.J. Palmer’s loose use of historical fact, I can’t help but think about Bob Dylan. In his autobiographical book, Chronicles, as well as of some recent songs, Dylan was accused of plagiarizing whole passages. When taken in context, it looks as though Dylan was adopting a style of writing reminiscent of traditional folk tunes, classical poetry, and a type of writing that emerged in the 1930s. Perhaps we should view B.J. Palmer’s writings alongside the Nobel Laureate?
  • The first volume of the Greenbooks was published in Autumn 1906. That book is primarily a compilation of D.D. Palmer’s articles prior to March 1906. D.D. Palmer left Davenport in Spring 1906. B.J. Palmer hired a college professor to edit the book and include several other chapters by B.J. and articles from other authors. B.J. published the second edition in 1910 and the third edition in 1917. These editions included new chapters and edited old ones.

Resources for this Episode:


  • www.facebook.com/institutechiro
  • www.instagram.com/simonsenzon


* Music written, arranged, and performed by Dan Mills, Mark Goodell, Adam Podd


The Institute Chiropractic at Mile High

Thank you, Dr. Daniel Knowles, for posting a video of the philosophy panel from Mile High 4. The panel took place in Westminster, Colorado in August of 2016.

The Institute Chiropractic (TIC) organized the panel. This included Dr. Simon Senzon and three members of TIC: Dr. Barry Hobbs, Dr. Jack Bourla, and Dr. Phil McMaster, as well as Dr. Joel Kinch as the MC (another member of TIC).

Milehigh Philosophy Panel: Barry Hobbs, Simon Senzon, Jack Bourla, and Phil McMaster

Milehigh Philosophy Panel: Barry Hobbs, Simon Senzon, Jack Bourla, and Phil McMaster

Please click on the image to go directly to the Mile High page and watch the discussion.

Some Questions for the Ages

We decided to use three short videos from The Institute Chiropractic to inspire discussion. The topics ranged from B.J. Palmer‘s thots about Innate Intelligence, Educated Intelligence, and Function, to various types of Vertebral Subluxation, and ultimately Universal Intelligence. The videos were just a starting point.

The discussions ranged from the complexities of Innate Intelligence to the interesting life of D.D. Palmer. By watching the discussion, you may learn some new facts. You will certainly discover what types of interactions await at the next Mile High and on the discussion forums of TIC.


Order of Australia Medal Awarded to Dr. Rolf Peters

Congratulations are in order to Rolf Peters, DC, MCSc, FACC, FPAC, FICC.

Dr. Peters has been honored with the Award of Order of Australia Medal for his service to the chiropractic profession. The award was approved by The Governor General of Australia, in his capacity as the Chancellor of the Order of Australia.

Order of Australia Medal Awarded to Dr. Rolf Peters

Order of Australia Medal Awarded to Dr. Rolf Peters

Award Letter from the Governor General of Australia

Award Letter from the Governor General of Australia

Many of Rolf’s articles are posted on this site along with his own page. There is also a post about his book, which was released two years ago. Dr. Peters continues to demonstrate excellence and extraordinary service to the chiropractic profession. (Check out WFC’s tribute to Rolf!) Thank you, Dr. Peters!

The Institute Chiropractic is planning to publish an abridged version of Dr. Peters’ book in 2017. The book has received excellent reviews in Chiropractic History and Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. An Early History of Chiropractic is the seminal book on the topic.

Rolf Peters, DC, MCSc, FACC, FPAC, FICC.

Rolf Peters, DC, MCSc, FACC, FPAC, FICC.


Neuro-skeleton, CPG, and Coherence

Every chiropractor should know about the latest research conducted at the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Southern California. The research was published by R. Martin del Campo and Edmond Jonckheere. This is a continuation of the research starting in the 1990’s into the spinal wave associated with Network Spinal Analysis. There are several remarkable aspects to this research.

The researchers were able to reproduce previous findings. They measured the propagation of electrical activity in the muscles associated with the wave movement. To do this they used surface electromyography (sEMG) and characterized their findings mathematically.

A standing wave emerges as a manifestation of coherence in the spine.

sEMG data collected from the cervical region during standing wave. Figure reprinted with permission from Musuvathy. Coherently interacting dynamics in the neuromuscular system; 2011.

sEMG data collected from the cervical region during standing wave. Figure reprinted with permission from Musuvathy. Coherently interacting dynamics in the neuromuscular system; 2011.

Spinal Wave as CPG

The wave then settles into a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). Other known human CPGs include gait and swimming. The wave movement is another human CPG.

The wave emerges in response to low force contacts to the spine at areas associated with spinal cord attachments.

The researchers suggest that Breig’s Adverse Mechanical Cord Tension paradigm helps to explain the neurological loops that may lead to the rhythmic wave. Epstein included Breig’s work in the 1980’s.

He later suggested that the meninges act as a passive transducer in Panjabi’s stabilizing subsystem paradigm.

Experiments a Decade Apart were Reproduced

Another fascinating element of their research is that the phenomenon is reproducible. Different studies conducted ten years apart demonstrate the robustness of the wave. During that time period, the technology used to measure the electrical activity in the muscles changed, the software changed, and the NSA protocols changed. And yet the spinal wave was consistent.

Full neck surface electromyography signal. Figure reprinted with permission from Lohsoonthorn et al. Nonlinear switching dynamics in surface electromyography of the spine; Physics and Control Proceedings; 2003.
Incremental neck surface electromyography signal. Figure reprinted with permission from Lohsoonthorn et al. Nonlinear switching dynamics in surface electromyography of the spine; Physics and Control Proceedings; 2003.

Coherence and the Neuroskeleton

Interestingly enough, DeCampo and Jonckheere use the term “neuro-skeleton,” which originates with D.D. Palmer. They write,

“A standing wave is certainly a manifestation of coherence in the neuro-skeletal system. Since the spinal standing wave has its coherence extending from the neck to the sacrum, it is fair to say that this is a phenomenon of coherence at a distance. Coherence at a distance between EEG and/or (s)EMG signals is considered to be a sign of the nervous system able to coordinate activities of many muscles towards a specific motion.”

They even suggest that their methods may develop into a new way to assess the health of the central nervous system.


Chiropractic Philosopher Morikubo

Shegetaro Morikubo was one of the early leaders of chiropractic. He is most famous for following in D.D. Palmer’s footsteps and getting arrested for practicing medicine, osteopathy, and surgery without a license.

Unlike D.D., who spent 23 days in jail, Morikubo’s case was won and set a precedent. Chiropractic was separate and distinct from osteopathy. (Check out my blog post about some of the mistakes in the literature on the topic.)

I have researched and written about his life. I thought we knew all that we could about him. He grew up in Japan. Descended from an aristocratic Buddhist family in the province of Kanagawa. After his trial, he married and then taught and practiced in Minneapolis. I have read every article that I could find by him written between 1904 and 1922.

I was just completing a lecture series on his life for TIC (and for CE)* when I found out something new!**

Shegetaro Morikubo (1877-1933)

Shegetaro Morikubo (1877-1933)

Morikubo was a Novelist and Read Shakespeare

Last week I got a surprise email from John Wolfe. Dr. Wolfe is a chiropractic historian, the editor of Chiropractic History, and an associate professor at Northwestern College of Chiropractic. He is also one of the leading Morikubo historians in the world.

Wolfe just found this news article from 1895. It is the earliest known writing we have about Morikubo.

There are several interesting things here. The article refers to him as Shigal (I don’t know much about Kanji but it sounds pretty close to Shegetaro). It also supports some other documents such as his age, his ancestry, when he came to the U.S., and that he was a student in California. (I tried to find historical documents about his early schooling from the Berkeley archives to the Tokio Academy with no luck.)

Love, Labor and Novels - Morikubo 1895

Love, Labor and Novels - Morikubo 1895

Furthermore, we learn that he studied English with a tutor and read Shakespeare, Irving, Hawthorne, and Longfellow.

We also learn that he is a budding young novelist who aspired to write a history of Japan. This helps us to make sense of his future plays on Japanese Marriage as well as his several lectures and articles on religion and politics in Japan.

The guy was very interesting.

Chiropractic Philosopher

We know that Morikubo covered some of B.J. Palmer’s lectures in the fall of 1906.

B.J. Palmer did not record his lectures from that year. The first chiropractic green book solely authored by B.J. came out the following year and it was based on his winter 1907 lectures.

Morikubo’s first article on the philosophy, science, and art came out in January 1907. (This was a full 8 months before the infamous trial.) The article included many of the early concepts that would appear in B.J.’s Vol 2.

The Philosophy of Chiropractic

In my lecture series at The Institute Chiropractic, I delve into some of Morikubo’s writings on the philosophy of chiropractic. In this video, I capture some of his more interesting contributions. I recreated two of his drawings as animation from a 1915 article called Chiropractic Philosophy.

A History of Ideas

Many questions emerge when we reflect on the history of ideas in chiropractic. Who originated each of the core theories from the chiropractic paradigm? Which authors should be included in the chiropractic canon of theory, science, and practice? What is the difference between subluxation theory and philosophy in chiropractic? There are many questions still to be answered.

Historical information about the foundational paradigm of chiropractic is still being discovered. It is an exciting time for the profession.

*The lectures on the early leaders in chiropractic will be posted soon as part of the Chiropractic Principles online continuing education program.

**Members of The Institute Chiropractic get access to all of the lectures plus tons of content (over 50 hours) as well as discounts for the CE courses.