Yearly Archives: 2016

The Institute Chiropractic at Mile High

Thank you, Dr. Daniel Knowles, for posting a video of the philosophy panel from Mile High 4. The panel took place in Westminster, Colorado in August of 2016.

The Institute Chiropractic (TIC) organized the panel. This included Dr. Simon Senzon and three members of TIC: Dr. Barry Hobbs, Dr. Jack Bourla, and Dr. Phil McMaster, as well as Dr. Joel Kinch as the MC (another member of TIC).

Milehigh Philosophy Panel: Barry Hobbs, Simon Senzon, Jack Bourla, and Phil McMaster

Milehigh Philosophy Panel: Barry Hobbs, Simon Senzon, Jack Bourla, and Phil McMaster

Please click on the image to go directly to the Mile High page and watch the discussion.

Some Questions for the Ages

We decided to use three short videos from The Institute Chiropractic to inspire discussion. The topics ranged from B.J. Palmer‘s thots about Innate Intelligence, Educated Intelligence, and Function, to various types of Vertebral Subluxation, and ultimately Universal Intelligence. The videos were just a starting point.

The discussions ranged from the complexities of Innate Intelligence to the interesting life of D.D. Palmer. By watching the discussion, you may learn some new facts. You will certainly discover what types of interactions await at the next Mile High and on the discussion forums of TIC.

 

Order of Australia Medal Awarded to Dr. Rolf Peters

Congratulations are in order to Rolf Peters, DC, MCSc, FACC, FPAC, FICC.

Dr. Peters has been honored with the Award of Order of Australia Medal for his service to the chiropractic profession. The award was approved by The Governor General of Australia, in his capacity as the Chancellor of the Order of Australia.

Order of Australia Medal Awarded to Dr. Rolf Peters

Order of Australia Medal Awarded to Dr. Rolf Peters

Award Letter from the Governor General of Australia

Award Letter from the Governor General of Australia

Many of Rolf’s articles are posted on this site along with his own page. There is also a post about his book, which was released two years ago. Dr. Peters continues to demonstrate excellence and extraordinary service to the chiropractic profession. (Check out WFC’s tribute to Rolf!) Thank you, Dr. Peters!

The Institute Chiropractic is planning to publish an abridged version of Dr. Peters’ book in 2017. The book has received excellent reviews in Chiropractic History and Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. An Early History of Chiropractic is the seminal book on the topic.

Rolf Peters, DC, MCSc, FACC, FPAC, FICC.

Rolf Peters, DC, MCSc, FACC, FPAC, FICC.

 

Neuro-skeleton, CPG, and Coherence

Every chiropractor should know about the latest research conducted at the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Southern California. The research was published by R. Martin del Campo and Edmond Jonckheere. This is a continuation of the research starting in the 1990’s into the spinal wave associated with Network Spinal Analysis. There are several remarkable aspects to this research.

The researchers were able to reproduce previous findings. They measured the propagation of electrical activity in the muscles associated with the wave movement. To do this they used surface electromyography (sEMG) and characterized their findings mathematically.

A standing wave emerges as a manifestation of coherence in the spine.

sEMG data collected from the cervical region during standing wave. Figure reprinted with permission from Musuvathy. Coherently interacting dynamics in the neuromuscular system; 2011.

sEMG data collected from the cervical region during standing wave. Figure reprinted with permission from Musuvathy. Coherently interacting dynamics in the neuromuscular system; 2011.

Spinal Wave as CPG

The wave then settles into a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). Other known human CPGs include gait and swimming. The wave movement is another human CPG.

The wave emerges in response to low force contacts to the spine at areas associated with spinal cord attachments.

The researchers suggest that Breig’s Adverse Mechanical Cord Tension paradigm helps to explain the neurological loops that may lead to the rhythmic wave. Epstein included Breig’s work in the 1980’s.

He later suggested that the meninges act as a passive transducer in Panjabi’s stabilizing subsystem paradigm.

Experiments a Decade Apart were Reproduced

Another fascinating element of their research is that the phenomenon is reproducible. Different studies conducted ten years apart demonstrate the robustness of the wave. During that time period, the technology used to measure the electrical activity in the muscles changed, the software changed, and the NSA protocols changed. And yet the spinal wave was consistent.

Full neck surface electromyography signal. Figure reprinted with permission from Lohsoonthorn et al. Nonlinear switching dynamics in surface electromyography of the spine; Physics and Control Proceedings; 2003.
Incremental neck surface electromyography signal. Figure reprinted with permission from Lohsoonthorn et al. Nonlinear switching dynamics in surface electromyography of the spine; Physics and Control Proceedings; 2003.

Coherence and the Neuroskeleton

Interestingly enough, DeCampo and Jonckheere use the term “neuro-skeleton,” which originates with D.D. Palmer. They write,

“A standing wave is certainly a manifestation of coherence in the neuro-skeletal system. Since the spinal standing wave has its coherence extending from the neck to the sacrum, it is fair to say that this is a phenomenon of coherence at a distance. Coherence at a distance between EEG and/or (s)EMG signals is considered to be a sign of the nervous system able to coordinate activities of many muscles towards a specific motion.”

They even suggest that their methods may develop into a new way to assess the health of the central nervous system.

 

Chiropractic Philosopher Morikubo

Shegetaro Morikubo was one of the early leaders of chiropractic. He is most famous for following in D.D. Palmer’s footsteps and getting arrested for practicing medicine, osteopathy, and surgery without a license.

Unlike D.D., who spent 23 days in jail, Morikubo’s case was won and set a precedent. Chiropractic was separate and distinct from osteopathy. (Check out my blog post about some of the mistakes in the literature on the topic.)

I have researched and written about his life. I thought we knew all that we could about him. He grew up in Japan. Descended from an aristocratic Buddhist family in the province of Kanagawa. After his trial, he married and then taught and practiced in Minneapolis. I have read every article that I could find by him written between 1904 and 1922.

I was just completing a lecture series on his life for TIC (and for CE)* when I found out something new!**

Shegetaro Morikubo (1877-1933)

Shegetaro Morikubo (1877-1933)

Morikubo was a Novelist and Read Shakespeare

Last week I got a surprise email from John Wolfe. Dr. Wolfe is a chiropractic historian, the editor of Chiropractic History, and an associate professor at Northwestern College of Chiropractic. He is also one of the leading Morikubo historians in the world.

Wolfe just found this news article from 1895. It is the earliest known writing we have about Morikubo.

There are several interesting things here. The article refers to him as Shigal (I don’t know much about Kanji but it sounds pretty close to Shegetaro). It also supports some other documents such as his age, his ancestry, when he came to the U.S., and that he was a student in California. (I tried to find historical documents about his early schooling from the Berkeley archives to the Tokio Academy with no luck.)

Love, Labor and Novels - Morikubo 1895

Love, Labor and Novels - Morikubo 1895

Furthermore, we learn that he studied English with a tutor and read Shakespeare, Irving, Hawthorne, and Longfellow.

We also learn that he is a budding young novelist who aspired to write a history of Japan. This helps us to make sense of his future plays on Japanese Marriage as well as his several lectures and articles on religion and politics in Japan.

The guy was very interesting.

Chiropractic Philosopher

We know that Morikubo covered some of B.J. Palmer’s lectures in the fall of 1906.

B.J. Palmer did not record his lectures from that year. The first chiropractic green book solely authored by B.J. came out the following year and it was based on his winter 1907 lectures.

Morikubo’s first article on the philosophy, science, and art came out in January 1907. (This was a full 8 months before the infamous trial.) The article included many of the early concepts that would appear in B.J.’s Vol 2.

The Philosophy of Chiropractic

In my lecture series at The Institute Chiropractic, I delve into some of Morikubo’s writings on the philosophy of chiropractic. In this video, I capture some of his more interesting contributions. I recreated two of his drawings as animation from a 1915 article called Chiropractic Philosophy.

A History of Ideas

Many questions emerge when we reflect on the history of ideas in chiropractic. Who originated each of the core theories from the chiropractic paradigm? Which authors should be included in the chiropractic canon of theory, science, and practice? What is the difference between subluxation theory and philosophy in chiropractic? There are many questions still to be answered.

Historical information about the foundational paradigm of chiropractic is still being discovered. It is an exciting time for the profession.

*The lectures on the early leaders in chiropractic will be posted soon as part of the Chiropractic Principles online continuing education program.

**Members of The Institute Chiropractic get access to all of the lectures plus tons of content (over 50 hours) as well as discounts for the CE courses.

 

Kent Gentempo and Senzon on BJ Palmer

This On Purpose Interview with Kent, Gentempo, and Senzon explores some new ideas about B.J. Palmer’s early theory. Between 1907 and 1909, B.J. Palmer developed the basics of his philosophy and subluxation theories. Several of his ideas were translated into articles and books by his students John Craven and Ralph Stephenson. Some of their interpretations were incorrect.

Diving into B.J. Palmer’s original theory opens up the philosophy of chiropractic in new and interesting ways. The depth of how B.J. Palmer viewed the organism in the context of the environment shines through. The energy and information are transformed in the organism. The transformation is the process through which mind and matter are enacted.

BIG IDEAS FROM THIS EPISODE

  • B.J. Palmer’s theory of the “forun” was developed based on his readings on Electricity from the Encylopedia Brittanica.
  • B.J. Palmer’s most distinct theories were written down as Vol. 2, Vol. 3, and Vol. 5.
  • John Craven collaborated with B.J. on the second edition of Vol. 5 and the third edition of Vol. 2.
  • Some of the mistakes Craven made were so subtle that they obviously got missed by B.J. and other.
  • Craven’s student R.W. Stephenson used Vol. 5 as one of his main sources for his Chiropractic Textbook.
  • Stephenson made some of the same errors as Craven and thus the original theories have been passed down to us as incorrect.

Resources for this Episode:

 

Subluxation in Chiropractic: TIC VLOG Episode 5

The chiropractic literature periodically has problems with bias and incorrect facts about history. The profession needs to correct the mistakes. I will be dedicating several TIC VLOGS and blog posts in the coming months to the literature. Please let me know if this is useful to you.

This week’s question comes form Steve Tullius about a paper published in 2014 on professional attitudes in chiropractic. It is based on a survey conducted in Canada on more than 700 chiropractors. That survey is based on an older survey used in McGregor-Triano’s dissertation. The paper itself has several problems apart from the survey.

I applaud their efforts to try to understand chiropractor’s attitudes. I offer this critique with the best intentions. We need to improve the quality of our literature and stop citing old references that have been debunked.

BIG IDEAS FROM THIS EPISODE

  • It is time for the literature to start reflecting a more accurate history of subluxation in chiropractic. The literature on subluxation was developed at every school. There are a few papers that reflect this such as Kent, Faye, Good, and Vernon.
  • It would be great if papers in the literature would stop repeating the idea that subluxation and philosophy first showed up at the Morikubo trial in 1907. Also, that subluxation and philosophy were based on the work of Solon Langworthy. These myths started in Lerner’s report in 1952, and are based on Lerner’s conjectures from incomplete facts. He wrote his report as though it was true but when you look at his meager sources, his assertions on the topic DO NOT PAN OUT.
    Philosophy and subluxation were certainly used in court to demonstrate that chiropractic was separate and distinct from medicine and osteopathy. However, they were already developed by D.D. Palmer and his students prior to 1907.
    Unfortunately, Lerner’s report is the main source of Rehm’s influential article on the topic. This led to more articles and textbooks that can all be traced to the unsubstantiated claims by Lerner. For those in the profession who care about facts and scientific rigor, this fact should be included in the future literature.
  • In 2003, McDonald’s study was published. It demonstrated that 88.1% of chiropractors in the United States felt vertebral subluxation should be retained by the profession. It was also published as a book and later expanded upon with three essays in Chiropractic Peace.
  • In 2006, a paper was published based on a planning conference on chiropractic. It was held by academics. They found that only 30% of academic chiropractors wanted to retain subluxation. They compared this to the 90% of chiropractors who want to keep the term.

The 64 Chiropractors at the Heart of the McGregor Study

  • One element of the McGregor/Puhl paper that I did not address in the video blog is the original survey. They based the validity of the survey instrument on a previous study conducted in November of 2000. That study examined 64 individuals.
  • The survey was handed out at the WFC conference on philosophy in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (Download WFC’s report here: ChiroReport.)
  • The conference itself was a bit surreal. I was there. Perhaps I will dedicate another blog post to it in the future. I got to meet my friend Joe Keating for the first time in person as well as Nell Williams and many other legends.
  • A big consensus was forced upon the attendees. It was embraced by the WFC and ACC, which included every school in the United States. The consensus was based on the Coulter paradigm of chiropractic philosophy. It was developed at LACC/SCUHS in the 1990’s and the basis of Coulter’s 1999 text. Every school embraced the tenets that chiropractic is based on “holism, vitalism, naturalism, humanism, and therapeutic conservatism.”
  • McGregor even gave a talk on the philosophical basis for condition-centered chiropractic.
  • The highlight of the conference for me was John Astin’s paper integrating Ken Wilber’s Integral Theory into a chiropractic framework.
  • The McGregor survey was handed out at the conference and was described in her dissertation. The 64 chiropractors included 10 college presidents, 16 practicing chiropractors, 1 student, 23 lecturers or deans at colleges, 7 from various chiropractic organizations, and 7 who were not chiropractors. It is difficult to fathom how this could be considered an accurate picture of what chiropractors think about subluxation!

SEND ME YOUR QUESTIONS FOR FUTURE EPISODES

 

* Music written, arranged, and performed by Dan Mills, Mark Goodell, Adam Podd

 

B.J. Palmer’s House: TIC VLOG Episode 4

In 1952, B.J. Palmer bought a beach home in Sarasota, Florida. It was here that he spent many of his final days. During this time he wrote ten books, traveled to Davenport to teach, managed his school and broadcasting companies, and visited with chiropractic and circus friends. He also confronted his own mortality.

In recent decades, the home was bought by Sid Williams. The Williams family restored the house and converted it into a museum. The B.J. Palmer Historic Home Foundation manages the property and raises funds to upkeep it. A recent storm damaged the dock B.J built for his boat. I visited the house and created this video in hopes of helping to restore it.

 

 

BIG IDEAS FROM THIS EPISODE

SEND ME YOUR QUESTIONS FOR FUTURE EPISODES

 

* Music written, arranged, and performed by Dan Mills, Mark Goodell, Adam Podd

 

B.J. Palmer’s Vol 2

In 1907, B.J. Palmer published his first book. It was based on his lectures. He called it Volume 2 in the new series on the Science of Chiropractic. B.J. considered this the second philosophical book. Volume 1 was primarily a compilation of his father’s writings. Volumes 3 and 4 came out in 1908 and Volume 5 in 1909. The chiropractic literature is mostly silent on Vol. 2, even though it was one of the most significant contributions to chiropractic theory of the last century. Many of the ideas B.J. put forth in this text were unique.

This short video clip is part of a lecture on the first edition of the book. Each clip explores one idea or one aspect of B.J.’s theories. His Innate theory built upon his father’s theory of Innate Intelligence, which were developed in 1903 and 1905. B.J. takes it further. We could even compare his ideas to more recent theories associated with enactive cognitive science and autopoiesis.

 

 

IMPORTANT RESOURCES

  • B.J. Palmer wrote about 34 books often referred to as The Greenbooks.
  • His early inspiration was from his father whose first chiropractic writings were compiled as Volume 1.
  • Robert Fuller considered D.D. Palmer’s contribution a unique integration of Spiritualist ideas with science.
  • The ideas from Vol. 2 were congruent with modern theories of enaction and autopoiesis.
  • The development of the chiropractic paradigm by the Palmers can be viewed as a form of Systems Science.

To learn more please join The Institute Chiropractic and get access to over two hundred video and audio clips.

 

Chiropractic Bohemian Conspiracy

The Bohemian Conspiracy started in chiropractic around 1903. It was a movement initiated by D.D. Palmer’s students who became his competitors to discredit him. Starting with Langworthy and Smith, it was suggested that D.D. Palmer took chiropractic from Iowan Bohemians, who practiced a form of spinal manipulation as a folk remedy. Not long after, this line of thinking shows up in the books of Davis, Gregory, and Forster, all leaders of rival schools.

This lecture was produced for the new online CE Chiropractic Program offered through The Institute Chiropractic (TIC). Members of TIC get big discounts for the CE courses offered through Sherman College. Other member benefits include access to over 160 clips, over 25 hours of content, a social network and an amazing archive.

 

 

RESOURCES TO LEARN MORE

  • The definitive article on the Bohemian Thrust and chiropractic was written by Gary Bovine.
  • The first chiropractic textbook to include Bohemian concepts was Modernized Chiropractic by Smith, Langworthy, and Paxson. The three ran The American School of Chiropractic and Nature Cure.
  • Alva Gregory included arguments about the Bohemians in his chiropractic text. Gregory ran the Palmer-Gregory School (even though Palmer was only involved with him for three months, Gregory kept his name on the corporate charter.)
  • Arthur Forster took up the Bohemian idea in his 1915 book, Principles and Practices of Chiropractic. Forster ran the National School of Chiropractic with Schultz.
  • Many chiropractic historians have included a history of spinal manipulation, which is an important aspect of history. However, without including the fact that such an approach was originated to discredit D.D. Palmer as the inventor of chiropractic, any history will be limited.
  • To view the other segments of this lecture please join The Institute Chiropractic.
 

D.D. Palmer’s Inspiration

D.D. Palmer’s inspiration came from his friend, student, and rival A.P. Davis. Davis was one of the first graduates from A.T. Still’s school. He was also the second graduate of Palmer’s new school in 1898.

I just produced five lectures about Davis. The emphasis is on his impact on early chiropractic. I really like this one clip because it captures D.D. Palmer’s depth of knowledge. Palmer mastered the literature of his day.

Davis impacted modern chiropractic. He was the first chiropractor to integrate the biomedical model into the chiropractic paradigm. He was also the first chiropractor to include other therapies alongside chiropractic. His books were read and integrated by the leading chiropractors of the day such as Howard, Langworthy, Loban, and Gregory. They laid the foundation for today’s chiropractic.

The biggest impact of Davis on chiropractic was the role he played as D.D. Palmer’s inspiration. D.D. was forced to develop his theories of impingement, vertebral subluxation, tone, and the neuroskeleton. He had to distinguish what his ideas were in response to his students. Davis was one of the biggest antagonists.

MORE RESOURCES ON DAVIS AND PALMER

To watch the rest of the Davis lectures (five short videos) please join The Institute Chiropractic today!